TEMPO E NARRATIVA RICOEUR PDF

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RICOEUR, P. Tempo e Narrativa, tomo III (1). Evany Samira. Uploaded by. Evany Samira. connect to download. Get pdf. cockfoheetaferr.ml cockfoheetaferr.ml - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. RICOEUR, Paul. Tempo e Narrativa, Tomo III - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. RICOEUR, Paul.


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RICOEUR, Paul. Tempo e Narrativa Tomo cockfoheetaferr.ml - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or view presentation slides online. Paul Ricoeur, Tempo e Narrativa Vol. Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate Apostila de Português Da Stephanie. Uploaded. RICOEUR, P. Tempo e Narrativa, Tomo I - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or view presentation slides online. RICOEUR, P. Tempo e Narrativa, Tomo I.

In South Africa, people had wanted to come together after apartheid. Renewed interest in such a forum is not only driven by pragmatic concerns about lack of resources to attend to unsolved murders. There is a real concern that 'rising discontent' over past crimes is 'infecting' present peacemaking. If 'Bloody Sunday' the complaint goes, then why not the other 1,? Some commentators ,lieve the answer is related to an 'asymmetry of responsibility' in that government personnel must be held to a higher standard of accountability than others, not least because the development of peaceful politics depends on the growth of trust in the institutions of law and order.

It is reasonable to expect that if peace between nationalists and unionists is to grow beyond 'surly co-existence' then 'one side's victims of injustice' must not be deemed 'less important' than the other's. It helps to highlight the concerns of the local communities as expressed in the following points: A South African style TRC would not be appropriate for Northern Ireland without a complete end to paramilitary activities.

Too much is still disputed to enable a satisfactory 'truth' to be accepted by all parties. A Truth Commission might entail some form of amnesty and many have difficulty with that. Reconciliation and healing cannot be taken forward before Truth and Justice is achieved. Public apologies might therefore be a way forward. There must be closure for victims and their relatives first. Timing matters as it was suggested that it could take two generations to pass before the rawness of recent events can begin to heal and recede.

For example, families and communities across England, Scotland and Wales, as well as in the Republic, were also impacted, but on a different scale. A study of the needs of victims and survivors out side Northern Ireland suggests that one 'constructive way forward' is to acknowledge the past by 'relating its stories in such a way that injury may be recognised and true healing take place.

In much of the prevailing discussions on the challenge of healing the hidden wounds of the past, few accept that it is not only victims that have been damaged by the violence. We live in a world where violence is al too common. Everyone faces suffering to a certain degree and some have clearly suffered greatly.

The message emerging from conflict zones around the globe that have embraced rather than dismissed the hurts of the past is that at a minimum, a degree of peace, healing and self-esteem has been restored for many. Dealing with the past in some official capacity affords hope that the evil of violence need not destroy and that there is the potential, as individuals and collectives 'to tum it around and to use it constructively.

Truth commissions have 'caught the wind o popularity' long before they have been fully understood and there remain several untested assumptions and assertions on the subject of reconciliation and healing. Truth commissions and hearings are thus turned to with great expectation, though often with little appreciation of the com plexity of the process and the difficulty of achieving the much hoped-for ends. This is not to suggest that the results will be unimportant or mini mal, but that expectations should be realistic regarding the ability of any short-term process to satisfy 'huge and multi-faceted' demands.

It cannot be denied that religion is part of the mix in a negatively contrived sectarian way. It is tempting to think that 'bad religion' won out over the good. Because religion is part of the narra tive, the question asked by many Irish Christians is: How come thirty years of condemnation of violence by the Churches at an institutional level did so little to effect change?

Engagement, even with those who commit reprehensible acts, is important to secure the peace in the long term. Introduction It is also a phenomenon of our increasingly secular and plural cul ture that the traditionally religious language of forgiveness, healing and reconciliation is being politicized and co-opted into a civilian framework.

Where then does this leave the voice of Christianity? To understand the challenges that the institutional Churches face and the contribution that they are making to peace and reconciliation on the island of Ireland, it is helpful to refer to the lectures given by now Cardinal Sean Brady of Armagh and Primate of All-Ireland, at St. Cardinal Brady summed up the key to peace as 'the will to embrace'.

He also asserted that without the Churches for all their faults, the period of the Troubles would have been much worse. While the 'two communities' are highly segregated in terms of where they live, work or go to school, on the whole there is more 'civility' between them than there would be with out the presence of the Churches.

The way forward is to break the cyc e of 'blame and counter blame' and a willingness to enter into new covenants and promises together. Brady cites 'the brokenness of Northern Ireland's past' as a powerful testimony to the dangers of an uncritical relationship between faith and identity based on themes of superiority, exclusion and distrust. Its present is testimony to the healing, restoring power of those who bring about a new approach rooted in the values of 'forgiveness, reconciliation and justice.

Referring to the pro spects of a truth and reconciliation process being established, Lord Eames has noted the 'hesitant yet growing-in-confidence efforts of many in the North to face up to the past. Not surprisingly, the most obvious victim of the Troubles era was 'basic trust' and reconciliation is essential if any 'step forward' is to be 'realistic and lasting.

As to whether or not the com munity is ready to face the consequences of a full enquiry into the past, Eames is cautious: Are we ready to face issues such as immunity from prosecution, acceptance of disclosure of details of the past which could easily open up fresh wounds Introduction and protection from community reaction to confessions of the past, which would be essential to any such process?

Reconciliation must not be confused with resolving past crimesY Closing the door on the past will be, he concludes, 'an achievement of immense human endeavour'. It will also demand sensitivity and prior acceptance of risk of high order. But as Brady noted at the same venue: "the Christian tradition provides the ultimate motive and model for living con structively with difference [in the model of the Blessed Trinity].

Perhaps the powerful metaphor of exclusion and embrace, best describes the hope of reconciliation on the island of Ireland: There can be no justice, no resolution to conflict without the will to embrace.

My point is simple: to create justice, you must [like the persons of the Trinity] make space in yourself for the other in order to make that space you need to want to embrace the other. If you insist that others do not belong to you and you to them, or that you will have your justice and they will have theirs; your justices wil dash and there wil be no peace.

The key to peace, therefore, is the will to embrace. The vision of 'embrace' is an aspect of love of neighbour. If we open our arms towards the other, we do not know what the reaction will be, yet the risk also opens the way to surprising encounters, enriching conversations and transformatIon. Furthermore, as one who suffered war and imprisonment in the former Yugoslavia, Volf argues as Ricoeur does for the 'unconditional' obligation of Christians to 'embrace' their enemies.

The principle of 'embrace' implicitly speaks of the need to 'help memory become a bridge between enemies instead of a ravine separating them. Teresa's Church in the heart of the capital city in January , ten years on from the signing of the Good Friday Agreement. The striking bronze Angel of Peace was made by sculptor Imogen Stewart. Because it is fragile it is also one of the most creative of human faculties. Over the past decade there has been a gradual recovery and renewed appreciation of its importance Introduction 11 through the work of Ricoeur as well as the Frankfurt School of Philosophy and renewed attention to the Jewish Holocaust, ecumenical re-visitations of the historical divisions between the churches combined with the striking work, in different continents, of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions as well as psychological research into memory.

He draws our attention to the reality that history is usually a story written by its victors, often at the expense of victims. By virtue of the 'ontological solidarity' that exists within the human family and in light of the empathy of the human heart with the suffering of others, humanity has 'an ethical duty to remember. As such, memory functions to deter future wrongdoing. Critics might well ask if it makes sense to retrieve the past in the present.

Is not the 'perceived view' the right one, namely that what is done is done and cannot be undone? Today, a growing band of theologians appreciate how Ricoeur has systematically answered these arguments by attending to the relationship that exists between memory and personal identity, rea son and history, respectively.

Narrative thinkers argue persuasively for the rediscovery of reason endowed with memory - that is, anamnestic reason. Biblical texts remind us of the 'other city' presenting us with a vision of life based on a corruitment to history especially the memory of liberation from oppression and of God's promise of a better future. At the heart of the resolution of the past is the issue of forgiyeness which is a task that Ricoeur's narrative ethics takes seriously.

Forgiveness precipi tates a dialectic tension between memory and forgetting. The trajectory of pardon originates from a disproportionate relationship between wrong doing and forgiveness.

Citater pr. år

Forgiveness can be difficult to give and difficult to receive. Yet Ricoeur args that forgiveness is the horizon of the future, the generous gift granted in order to write a new script for communities as well as individuals.

As the peace process evolves in Northern Ireland, to give a topical example, forgiveness is emerging as a political issue beyond its religious domain. Bearing in mind this evolution, Ricoeur helps us to frame the institutional pole of forgiveness as it impacts on law, politics and social 12 Introduction morality. Herein lies a challenge for the Churches and Christians, to bring the authentic gospel vision to bear on this development if it is not to become an exercise in pragmatism. Ricoeur's narrative enquiry into ethical personhood reminds us that the paradox of pardon, of remembrance and forgetting, is situated in the great Abrahamic tradition of repentance and peace.

New conversations are therefore possible between the religions and modern culture through the prism of metaphor particularly. Narrative is a crucial conceptual category for understanding issues of epistemology and methods of argument as well as depicting personal identity and displaying the content of Christian convictions. Ricoeur's death, on 23 May , marked his place in history as one of the leading phenomenologists of the twentieth century.

His work expresses a commitment to humanist and Christian values and he frequently privil eges an examination of the sacred and of the narrative potential of the exegetical imagination. The 'Yale School' on the other hand, has emerged from the biblical research of the outstanding exegete, Hans Frei and his colleague George Lindbeck.

The Chicago School represents 'liberal ethics' and stresses human capabilities for morality such as reason, the individual, freedom and the role of the human sciences.

Gregory Jones, who have edited an important narrative anthology. The outcome of the debate between the schools as to whether or not Introduction 13 narrative is part and parcel of the reconstruction of theology itself, or if its role is merely to display the content of Christian convictions, has yet to be decided.

For students of either school of thought, the answers may already be settled but one might expect narrative to serve not only as 'an introduc tion to the content of Christian faith' but also to offer 'a re-interpretation of that faith' on the basis of an understanding of the content.

While Hauerwas contributes an impressive apologetics for narrative as the inspiration for Christian witness in the world, he is addressing himself to Christians primarily, and holds that the task of Christian theology is not to tell everyone what they already know, but to bear witness to whom they already know - God, who is Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Christians are witnesses to a 'story' - because a story describes the particularity of God's redemptive intervention in the world. For some critics, Hauerwas's theology will result in a 'fideistic stance' this Ricoeur seeks to avoid through a dialectics with the world.

Povos não alcançados pelo cristianismo

As such Ricoeur is a helpful dia logue partner for religious discussion today, challenged by the landscape of post-modernity, pluralism and unbelief. On 11 April , John XXII published his epic peace encyclical Pacem in Terris Peace on Earth , addressed to a world in a state of profound disorder, facing nuclear threat and the rise of communism. Despite the wars and rumours of wars, the pontiff discerned that something more was at work in human affairs that looked like the promise of a spiritual revolution.

Given that we live in a new era of international tension it is hardly surprising that there is a longing for narratives to help recreate an ordered world and provide meaning and direction for personal and communal existence. In the face of fear, enmity and suspicion, we continue to value human relationships and connectedness. Ricoeur shows that our stories have an outside and an inside face. S3 His narrative pedagogy of pardon assists in reconfiguring for our time the evangelical imperative: "to love one's neighbour as oneself'.

To 'see oneself as another' permits the risk of exchanging wounded memories convinced that we will find more to embrace than to reject. For Ricoeur, narrative is 'the privileged means by which we reconfigure our confused, unformed and mute temporal existence'.

Moreover, it is easy to see how 'narrative' might be perceived as a faddish appeal to the importance of telling stories or conversely as an 'anti-intellectual excuse' for avoiding the need to address 'serious epistemological questions' the like of how narrative claims might be true or fals, as in: "you have your story and we have ours and there is no way to judge the truth of either. According to some scholars, Hauerwas's project is nothing less than a 'method ological shift' in thinking and talking about moral rationality and objectiv ity, a shift from a systematic-rationalistic account of the moral life to a narrative-based account.

It is not surprising then, that the study of narrative has become a meeting point and something of a battlefield for these disciplines while simulta neously emerging as a discipline in its own right. Philosophers, theologians, historians, literary critics and theorists all approach the topic from differ ent backgrounds and with different ends in view. The notion of 'beginning, middle and end' simply becomes meaningless in the real world.

In human life there is plenty of static while in the fictional world stories are carefully structured so that the 'extraneous' gets eliminated. In other words, real life includes everything and there are plenty of 'scrambled messages' communications brouillees. I f we turn t o history and the scholarship o f Louis Mink, who has cham pioned narrative history as a mode of cognition in its own right, he invokes the same distinction between art and life as posited by Barthes, namely that 'stories are not lived but told'.

Life has no beginnings, middles or ends. Rather, narrative qualities are transferred from art to life. In other words narrative at best represents life. In 'annals and chronicles' we are presented with paradigms of ways that reality offers itself to perception.

Human action must be deployed in time, because there is no other medium Situating Narrative: Philosophical and Theological Context 17 through which it can be realized. Ricoeur likens stories to music. A musical score may have many 'atemporal' qualities but music occurs when it is translated into sounds that unfold one after the other.

As long as we are living we are simply 'caught up' verstrickt in stories. Ricoeur says that we tell stories because in the last analysis human lives need and merit being narrated. For Ricoeur though, 'story' is essential to the process of humanizing our lives by providing for us a space of reflection so that we may grow from our experiences by raising our consciousness towards the goal - the ethical goal of pursuing the 'good life'. In short, Ricoeur shares the Socratic insight that the 'unexamined life is not worth living'.

This process allows one to develop a sense of being a subject instructed by cultural symbols, rather than becoming a 'narcissistic ego', a theme he subsequently expounds in his workY Concerning the co-relation of narrative epistemology to reconciliation, Ricoeur's philosophical project expresses a professional and personal interest in human action and sufering - and its resolution.

Indeed, one of the great achievements of his narrative theory is to remind us that the story of victims keeps accompanying or reduplicating the history of victors and as a result, history owes a 'strong ethical debt' to its victims.

Put differently, the cruel legacy of the past twentieth century and all of the suffering imposed on the third world by the rich, affluent countries through colonization, has consequences too in the speculative sphere where there arises the ethical question concerning the problem of victimization, of memory, of forgiveness and of reconciliation.

A further insight into the man, the influences and events that have shaped him as a philosopher are presented now in the following brief 18 review so as to deepen our understanding of his philosophical quest. It comprises: a biographical note and a survey of his intellectual j ourney. His mother died when he was seven-months old and his father, a teacher of English at the local lycee, was mobilized during the First World War and later declared missing in action, presumed dead.

Paul and his only sister Alice who later died from tuberculosis in her twenties were raised by an aunt their father's sister in Normandy as devout Protestants. Ricoeur was an outstanding student at the University of Rennes where he excelled at Classical Studies.

It is reasonable to expect that if peace between nationalists and unionists is to grow beyond 'surly co-existence' then 'one side's victims of injustice' must not be deemed 'less important' than the other's. It helps to highlight the concerns of the local communities as expressed in the following points: A South African style TRC would not be appropriate for Northern Ireland without a complete end to paramilitary activities.

Too much is still disputed to enable a satisfactory 'truth' to be accepted by all parties. A Truth Commission might entail some form of amnesty and many have difficulty with that. Reconciliation and healing cannot be taken forward before Truth and Justice is achieved. Public apologies might therefore be a way forward. There must be closure for victims and their relatives first.

Timing matters as it was suggested that it could take two generations to pass before the rawness of recent events can begin to heal and recede. For example, families and communities across England, Scotland and Wales, as well as in the Republic, were also impacted, but on a different scale.

A study of the needs of victims and survivors out side Northern Ireland suggests that one 'constructive way forward' is to acknowledge the past by 'relating its stories in such a way that injury may be recognised and true healing take place. In much of the prevailing discussions on the challenge of healing the hidden wounds of the past, few accept that it is not only victims that have been damaged by the violence.

We live in a world where violence is al too common. Everyone faces suffering to a certain degree and some have clearly suffered greatly. The message emerging from conflict zones around the globe that have embraced rather than dismissed the hurts of the past is that at a minimum, a degree of peace, healing and self-esteem has been restored for many. Dealing with the past in some official capacity affords hope that the evil of violence need not destroy and that there is the potential, as individuals and collectives 'to tum it around and to use it constructively.

Truth commissions have 'caught the wind o popularity' long before they have been fully understood and there remain several untested assumptions and assertions on the subject of reconciliation and healing. Truth commissions and hearings are thus turned to with great expectation, though often with little appreciation of the com plexity of the process and the difficulty of achieving the much hoped-for ends. This is not to suggest that the results will be unimportant or mini mal, but that expectations should be realistic regarding the ability of any short-term process to satisfy 'huge and multi-faceted' demands.

It cannot be denied that religion is part of the mix in a negatively contrived sectarian way. It is tempting to think that 'bad religion' won out over the good. Because religion is part of the narra tive, the question asked by many Irish Christians is: How come thirty years of condemnation of violence by the Churches at an institutional level did so little to effect change? Engagement, even with those who commit reprehensible acts, is important to secure the peace in the long term.

Introduction It is also a phenomenon of our increasingly secular and plural cul ture that the traditionally religious language of forgiveness, healing and reconciliation is being politicized and co-opted into a civilian framework. Where then does this leave the voice of Christianity? To understand the challenges that the institutional Churches face and the contribution that they are making to peace and reconciliation on the island of Ireland, it is helpful to refer to the lectures given by now Cardinal Sean Brady of Armagh and Primate of All-Ireland, at St.

Cardinal Brady summed up the key to peace as 'the will to embrace'. He also asserted that without the Churches for all their faults, the period of the Troubles would have been much worse.

While the 'two communities' are highly segregated in terms of where they live, work or go to school, on the whole there is more 'civility' between them than there would be with out the presence of the Churches.

The way forward is to break the cyc e of 'blame and counter blame' and a willingness to enter into new covenants and promises together. Brady cites 'the brokenness of Northern Ireland's past' as a powerful testimony to the dangers of an uncritical relationship between faith and identity based on themes of superiority, exclusion and distrust.

Its present is testimony to the healing, restoring power of those who bring about a new approach rooted in the values of 'forgiveness, reconciliation and justice. Referring to the pro spects of a truth and reconciliation process being established, Lord Eames has noted the 'hesitant yet growing-in-confidence efforts of many in the North to face up to the past. Not surprisingly, the most obvious victim of the Troubles era was 'basic trust' and reconciliation is essential if any 'step forward' is to be 'realistic and lasting.

As to whether or not the com munity is ready to face the consequences of a full enquiry into the past, Eames is cautious: Are we ready to face issues such as immunity from prosecution, acceptance of disclosure of details of the past which could easily open up fresh wounds Introduction and protection from community reaction to confessions of the past, which would be essential to any such process?

Reconciliation must not be confused with resolving past crimesY Closing the door on the past will be, he concludes, 'an achievement of immense human endeavour'. It will also demand sensitivity and prior acceptance of risk of high order. But as Brady noted at the same venue: "the Christian tradition provides the ultimate motive and model for living con structively with difference [in the model of the Blessed Trinity].

Perhaps the powerful metaphor of exclusion and embrace, best describes the hope of reconciliation on the island of Ireland: There can be no justice, no resolution to conflict without the will to embrace. My point is simple: to create justice, you must [like the persons of the Trinity] make space in yourself for the other in order to make that space you need to want to embrace the other.

If you insist that others do not belong to you and you to them, or that you will have your justice and they will have theirs; your justices wil dash and there wil be no peace. The key to peace, therefore, is the will to embrace.

The vision of 'embrace' is an aspect of love of neighbour. If we open our arms towards the other, we do not know what the reaction will be, yet the risk also opens the way to surprising encounters, enriching conversations and transformatIon.

Furthermore, as one who suffered war and imprisonment in the former Yugoslavia, Volf argues as Ricoeur does for the 'unconditional' obligation of Christians to 'embrace' their enemies. The principle of 'embrace' implicitly speaks of the need to 'help memory become a bridge between enemies instead of a ravine separating them. Teresa's Church in the heart of the capital city in January , ten years on from the signing of the Good Friday Agreement. The striking bronze Angel of Peace was made by sculptor Imogen Stewart.

Because it is fragile it is also one of the most creative of human faculties. Over the past decade there has been a gradual recovery and renewed appreciation of its importance Introduction 11 through the work of Ricoeur as well as the Frankfurt School of Philosophy and renewed attention to the Jewish Holocaust, ecumenical re-visitations of the historical divisions between the churches combined with the striking work, in different continents, of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions as well as psychological research into memory.

He draws our attention to the reality that history is usually a story written by its victors, often at the expense of victims. By virtue of the 'ontological solidarity' that exists within the human family and in light of the empathy of the human heart with the suffering of others, humanity has 'an ethical duty to remember. As such, memory functions to deter future wrongdoing.

Critics might well ask if it makes sense to retrieve the past in the present. Is not the 'perceived view' the right one, namely that what is done is done and cannot be undone?

Today, a growing band of theologians appreciate how Ricoeur has systematically answered these arguments by attending to the relationship that exists between memory and personal identity, rea son and history, respectively. Narrative thinkers argue persuasively for the rediscovery of reason endowed with memory - that is, anamnestic reason. Biblical texts remind us of the 'other city' presenting us with a vision of life based on a corruitment to history especially the memory of liberation from oppression and of God's promise of a better future.

At the heart of the resolution of the past is the issue of forgiyeness which is a task that Ricoeur's narrative ethics takes seriously. Forgiveness precipi tates a dialectic tension between memory and forgetting. The trajectory of pardon originates from a disproportionate relationship between wrong doing and forgiveness.

Forgiveness can be difficult to give and difficult to receive. Yet Ricoeur args that forgiveness is the horizon of the future, the generous gift granted in order to write a new script for communities as well as individuals. As the peace process evolves in Northern Ireland, to give a topical example, forgiveness is emerging as a political issue beyond its religious domain. Bearing in mind this evolution, Ricoeur helps us to frame the institutional pole of forgiveness as it impacts on law, politics and social 12 Introduction morality.

Herein lies a challenge for the Churches and Christians, to bring the authentic gospel vision to bear on this development if it is not to become an exercise in pragmatism. Ricoeur's narrative enquiry into ethical personhood reminds us that the paradox of pardon, of remembrance and forgetting, is situated in the great Abrahamic tradition of repentance and peace.

New conversations are therefore possible between the religions and modern culture through the prism of metaphor particularly.

Narrative is a crucial conceptual category for understanding issues of epistemology and methods of argument as well as depicting personal identity and displaying the content of Christian convictions. Ricoeur's death, on 23 May , marked his place in history as one of the leading phenomenologists of the twentieth century. His work expresses a commitment to humanist and Christian values and he frequently privil eges an examination of the sacred and of the narrative potential of the exegetical imagination.

The 'Yale School' on the other hand, has emerged from the biblical research of the outstanding exegete, Hans Frei and his colleague George Lindbeck. The Chicago School represents 'liberal ethics' and stresses human capabilities for morality such as reason, the individual, freedom and the role of the human sciences.

Gregory Jones, who have edited an important narrative anthology. The outcome of the debate between the schools as to whether or not Introduction 13 narrative is part and parcel of the reconstruction of theology itself, or if its role is merely to display the content of Christian convictions, has yet to be decided. For students of either school of thought, the answers may already be settled but one might expect narrative to serve not only as 'an introduc tion to the content of Christian faith' but also to offer 'a re-interpretation of that faith' on the basis of an understanding of the content.

While Hauerwas contributes an impressive apologetics for narrative as the inspiration for Christian witness in the world, he is addressing himself to Christians primarily, and holds that the task of Christian theology is not to tell everyone what they already know, but to bear witness to whom they already know - God, who is Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Christians are witnesses to a 'story' - because a story describes the particularity of God's redemptive intervention in the world. For some critics, Hauerwas's theology will result in a 'fideistic stance' this Ricoeur seeks to avoid through a dialectics with the world. As such Ricoeur is a helpful dia logue partner for religious discussion today, challenged by the landscape of post-modernity, pluralism and unbelief.

On 11 April , John XXII published his epic peace encyclical Pacem in Terris Peace on Earth , addressed to a world in a state of profound disorder, facing nuclear threat and the rise of communism. Despite the wars and rumours of wars, the pontiff discerned that something more was at work in human affairs that looked like the promise of a spiritual revolution. Given that we live in a new era of international tension it is hardly surprising that there is a longing for narratives to help recreate an ordered world and provide meaning and direction for personal and communal existence.

In the face of fear, enmity and suspicion, we continue to value human relationships and connectedness. Ricoeur shows that our stories have an outside and an inside face. S3 His narrative pedagogy of pardon assists in reconfiguring for our time the evangelical imperative: "to love one's neighbour as oneself'.

To 'see oneself as another' permits the risk of exchanging wounded memories convinced that we will find more to embrace than to reject. For Ricoeur, narrative is 'the privileged means by which we reconfigure our confused, unformed and mute temporal existence'.

Moreover, it is easy to see how 'narrative' might be perceived as a faddish appeal to the importance of telling stories or conversely as an 'anti-intellectual excuse' for avoiding the need to address 'serious epistemological questions' the like of how narrative claims might be true or fals, as in: "you have your story and we have ours and there is no way to judge the truth of either.

According to some scholars, Hauerwas's project is nothing less than a 'method ological shift' in thinking and talking about moral rationality and objectiv ity, a shift from a systematic-rationalistic account of the moral life to a narrative-based account. It is not surprising then, that the study of narrative has become a meeting point and something of a battlefield for these disciplines while simulta neously emerging as a discipline in its own right.

Philosophers, theologians, historians, literary critics and theorists all approach the topic from differ ent backgrounds and with different ends in view. The notion of 'beginning, middle and end' simply becomes meaningless in the real world.

Pau Ricouer- Tempo e Narrativa

In human life there is plenty of static while in the fictional world stories are carefully structured so that the 'extraneous' gets eliminated. In other words, real life includes everything and there are plenty of 'scrambled messages' communications brouillees. I f we turn t o history and the scholarship o f Louis Mink, who has cham pioned narrative history as a mode of cognition in its own right, he invokes the same distinction between art and life as posited by Barthes, namely that 'stories are not lived but told'.

Life has no beginnings, middles or ends. Rather, narrative qualities are transferred from art to life. In other words narrative at best represents life. In 'annals and chronicles' we are presented with paradigms of ways that reality offers itself to perception. Human action must be deployed in time, because there is no other medium Situating Narrative: Philosophical and Theological Context 17 through which it can be realized.

Ricoeur likens stories to music. A musical score may have many 'atemporal' qualities but music occurs when it is translated into sounds that unfold one after the other. As long as we are living we are simply 'caught up' verstrickt in stories.

Ricoeur says that we tell stories because in the last analysis human lives need and merit being narrated. For Ricoeur though, 'story' is essential to the process of humanizing our lives by providing for us a space of reflection so that we may grow from our experiences by raising our consciousness towards the goal - the ethical goal of pursuing the 'good life'. In short, Ricoeur shares the Socratic insight that the 'unexamined life is not worth living'.

This process allows one to develop a sense of being a subject instructed by cultural symbols, rather than becoming a 'narcissistic ego', a theme he subsequently expounds in his workY Concerning the co-relation of narrative epistemology to reconciliation, Ricoeur's philosophical project expresses a professional and personal interest in human action and sufering - and its resolution. Indeed, one of the great achievements of his narrative theory is to remind us that the story of victims keeps accompanying or reduplicating the history of victors and as a result, history owes a 'strong ethical debt' to its victims.

Put differently, the cruel legacy of the past twentieth century and all of the suffering imposed on the third world by the rich, affluent countries through colonization, has consequences too in the speculative sphere where there arises the ethical question concerning the problem of victimization, of memory, of forgiveness and of reconciliation. A further insight into the man, the influences and events that have shaped him as a philosopher are presented now in the following brief 18 review so as to deepen our understanding of his philosophical quest.

It comprises: a biographical note and a survey of his intellectual j ourney. His mother died when he was seven-months old and his father, a teacher of English at the local lycee, was mobilized during the First World War and later declared missing in action, presumed dead.

Paul and his only sister Alice who later died from tuberculosis in her twenties were raised by an aunt their father's sister in Normandy as devout Protestants. Ricoeur was an outstanding student at the University of Rennes where he excelled at Classical Studies.

Remarkably he shied away from philosophy, some say because of his devout religiosity. However, one of his professors Roland Dalbiez encouraged him to face that which he feared, so under his guidance, Ricoeur began to study philosophy and later chose it as his life's work.

Although a pacifist by nature, Ricoeur was called to military service with his regiment of Bretons. On 10 May , the Germans began their invasion of France. Ricoeur's unit was active in fighting until they were surrounded and forced to surrender near the city of Rheims.The middle was a simple succession: Important User Information: Public apologies might therefore be a way forward.

It is acknowledged that this review has limitations, such as its non-exhaustive nature. Imago; Narratives would be no more than "stories that have not yet been told" p. Comparative Study of Society and History, 54 1 , I Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social.

STEPHEN from Downey
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