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The critics have applauded it for its "sensitive and touching portrayal of marginalised community". The censor board justified the ban, saying it was "highly provocative and may trigger off unrest and communal violence".
The ban was lifted in October after a sustained campaign. The producers and the director David Fincher finally decided not to release the film in India.
The directors refused to make any changes whatsoever to the film and hence the film was denied a certificate. The film, which depicted a structural drug problem in the state of Punjab, used a lot of expletives and showed scenes of drug use.
The CBFC, on 9 June , released a list of 94 cuts and 13 pointers, including the deletion of names of cities in Punjab. On 13 June, the film was cleared by the Bombay High Court with one cut and disclaimers.
The court ruled that, contrary to the claims of the CBFC, the film was not out to "malign" the state of Punjab, and that it "wants to save people". The quality of the copy, along with the fact that there was supposedly a watermark that said "censor" on top of the screen, raised suspicions that the CBFC itself had leaked the copy to spite the filmmakers. It also contained the only scene that had been cut according to the High Court order.
While the CBFC claimed innocence,  the lingering suspicions resulted in a tense release, with the filmmakers and countless freedom of expression advocates taking to social media to appeal to the public to watch the film in theatres, as a conscious challenge against excessive censorship on art in India.
Kashyap himself asked viewers to wait till the film released before they downloaded it for free, stating that he didn't have a problem with illegal downloads,  an unusual thing for a film producer to say. In , the film Lipstick Under My Burkha directed by Alankrita Shrivastava and produced by Prakash Jha , also ran into trouble with the Central Board of Film Certification refused to certify the film, stating that "The story is lady oriented, their fantasy above life.
June 1, 2017 - May 31, 2018
There are contagious [sic] sexual scenes, abusive words, audio pornography and a bit sensitive touch about one particular section of society. The film was released with an "A" or adults certificate, equivalent to an NC rating in the United States , with some voluntary edits. I feel that we will be able to release the film without hampering the narrative or diluting its essence.
His two previous documentaries, Inshallah, Football and Inshallah, Kashmir were first banned and then, subsequently, awarded National Awards.
Kumar has written an open letter to Prasoon Joshi stating that being awarded an A certificate for an independent film is "as good as banning the film". Music[ edit ] Heavy metal band Slayer's album Christ Illusion was banned in India after Catholic churches in the country took offence to the artwork of the album and a few song titles and launched a protest against it.
Singh Chief Justice , S. Radhakrishnan, and Dr.
Chandrachud allowed the writ petition and declared the notification to be ultra vires and illegal, thus rescinding the ban. The play however, has played successfully in many other parts of the country since A Hindi version of the play has been performing since In , the Sindh High Court had yet to issue a decision in cases brought in by Telenor Pakistan and a doctor who reported being unable to communicate with patients during a shutdown, among others.
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The economic cost of service disruptions is high. Power outages, characterized as among the worst in Asia, also limited connectivity in and However, since the introduction of high-speed mobile internet, mobile internet accounts for approximately 88 percent of the broadband market, which has changed the dynamics of the industry.
The decision has also been opposed by leaders in the private sector.
However, by mid, the PTA had not yet produced any new rules, or shown transparency in the drafting process. Blocking of political content without transparency continued during the reporting period. Other platforms, media, and communication tools are popular and contribute to a vibrant online space. However, concerted steps have been taken to crack down on content the government judges to be antistate and blasphemous.
During the lead-up to the July elections, online spaces were sometimes used to spread disinformation. Blocking and Filtering Access to political, religious, and social content online is limited through PTA orders to service providers, as well as through technical filtering technologies.
The government blocks content relating to news, human rights, content critical of Islam, as well as sex and nudity, and circumvention and privacy tools.
Apart from PECA, other regulatory provisions have long enabled politically-motivated censorship of dissenting voices and information perceived as damaging to the military or political elites. Broad provisions in the Pakistan Telecommunications Act support censorship for the protection of national security or religious reasons. Section 9.
No reason for the blocking was provided by the government, but it followed the online publication of an article sympathetic to the Pashtun human rights movement. The account was restored after supporters of the movement expressed outrage on social media.
Social media applications and the websites of most news channels were blocked briefly in November throughout the country, due to what the government claimed were security concerns see Restrictions on Connectivity. Political dissent and secessionist movements in areas including Baluchistan and Sindh province have been subject to systematic censorship for years.
The identified pages belonged to Baloch and Sindhi nationalist groups. Censorship targeting pornography can restrict access to health information and other legitimate content like Scarleteen, a U. Section 37 2 requires that rules are drafted that will ensure a transparent and effective oversight mechanism for blocking or removing online content, but these had yet to be issued during the coverage period.
Content Removal State and other actors are known to exert extralegal pressure on publishers and content producers to remove content, but these instances frequently go unreported, and the processes involved are not clear.
The government has succeeded in getting international companies to remove content in Pakistan.
Censorship in India
In July , a delegation from Facebook met with the interior minister, who lobbied the social media company to cooperate in removing content deemed blasphemous. Of the removal requests, 52 percent were related to religious offenses or blasphemous content. The post included a report of a politician criticizing the military.
ICTs, particularly mobile phones, promote social mobilization. In September , opportunities were extended to Pakistani content creators as the localized version of YouTube, YouTube. The blasphemy campaigns often appear coordinated. In one example from the reporting period, social media users poisoned hashtags being used to rally support for missing bloggers, accusing them of blasphemy see Digital Activism.
Separately, a student was murdered in reprisal for alleged blasphemy, shortly after he reported that someone was impersonating him with a fake account on social media see Intimidation and Violence.
In the lead up to the July election, each major political party had a social media team campaigning online. For example, online propaganda and misinformation have hindered efforts to fight polio.
Digital Activism Human rights activists have galvanized public support using digital technology, including on internet freedom issues. Some have achieved limited success, and may have discouraged officials from adopting even more restrictive measures.
Yet there is still significant resistance at the institutional level to grassroots campaigns, which limits the effectiveness of digital activism. Digital activism before the passage of the PECA in , for example, failed to prevent problematic provisions from being adopted see Legal Environment. One online campaign during the coverage period was to recover abducted activists, including Raza Khan who went missing in December The hashtag FindRaza was used to highlight his abduction and call for his return.
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However, online accusations have also opened some women up to defamation lawsuits. Violations of User Rights: User rights continued to be violated during the coverage period, including two murders in response to online speech, and the abductions of five bloggers.
Civil society groups say that PECA criminalizes legitimate online activity, and more problematic prosecutions based on allegations of online blasphemy were reported. In August , PECA became law, despite concerns from civil society organizations regarding the lack of transparency involved in the drafting process.
Furthermore, secret military courts were established in through the 21st amendment to the constitution, which was set to lapse in January until the National Assembly and Senate approved a two-year extension.
In December , the cabinet approved an amendment to add sections relating to blasphemy and pornography to PECA. A draft amendment presented to the court in February included provisions to punish false accusations of blasphemy as well. In January , the Federal Investigation Agency FIA , tasked with investigating and prosecuting cybercrime, requested parliament to make more offenses cognizable and nonbailable. Sections of the penal code that cover blasphemy, including c , which imposes a mandatory death sentence, are frequently invoked to limit freedom of expression and in many cases involve electronic media see Prosecutions and Detentions for Online Activities.
In March , the IHC ruled that those accused of posting blasphemous content on social media should be barred from leaving the country until their name is cleared. Human rights groups report that the law lacks safeguards to prevent abuse to settle personal vendettas.
The Defamation Ordinance can impose prison sentences of up to five years. PECA effectively replaced the ordinances, but they were still invoked during the reporting period, and some older cases were also ongoing. In June , a man was sentenced to death for blasphemy after posting comments about the Prophet Mohammed on Facebook. Sajid subsequently jumped from the fourth floor of the FIA building and was critically injured.
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In December , the FIA detained three bloggers for allegedly sharing images of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif with a politician incorrectly identified as a judge. No formal charges were pressed, according to official statements.Separately, a student was murdered in reprisal for alleged blasphemy, shortly after he reported that someone was impersonating him with a fake account on social media see Intimidation and Violence. It is a wrongful intrusion into a person's private activities by other individual s or by the government.
In December , the FIA detained three bloggers for allegedly sharing images of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif with a politician incorrectly identified as a judge. Unit 2  Survey of cyber crime activities and preventive measures ; Cyber crime is pervasive, pandemic and increasingly connected with other parts of the criminal ecosystem. India ranks third out of the eleven countries in Asia included in the report. Furthermore, new regulations introduced in March require all Wi-Fi hotspot service providers to retain user data.
Suri — Bharat Law house New Delhi. It ranges from the theft of an individual's identity to the complete disruption of a country's Internet connectivity due to a massive attack against its networking and computing resources.