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Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to optical fiber communications by considering the historical development, the general system and the major advantages provided by this new technology. Chapter 2 the concept of the optical fiber as a transmission medium is introduced using a simple ray theory approach. This is followed by discuslion of electromagnetic wave theory applied to optical fibers prior to consideration of Ii,htwave transmission within the various fiber types, The major transmission cha r acteris tics of optical fi bers are th en di sCU ssed in so me detail in C h a pter 3.
Chapters 4 and 5 deal with the more practical aspects of optical fiber communication.
In Chapter 4 the x PREFACE manufacture and cabling of the various fiber types are described, together with fiber to fiber connection or jointing, Chapter 5 gives a genera] treatment of the major measurements which may be undertaken on optical fibers in both the laboratory and the field.
This chapter is intended to provide sufficient background for the reader to pursue u se f u l 1 a bora tory wo r k with opti cal fibers. The other important semiconductor optical source, namely the light emitting diode, is dealt with in Chapter 7. The next two chapters are devoted to the detection of the optical signal and the amplification of the electrical signal obtained, Chapter 8 discusses the basic principles of optical detection in semiconductors; this is followed by a description of the various types of photodetector currently utilized.
The optical fiber receiver is considered in C hap ter 9 with partie uJ ar em ph as is on i ts perform an ce in noise. Chapter [0 draws together the preceding material in a detailed discussion of optical fiber communication systems, aiming to provide an insight into the design criteria and practices for aU the main aspects of both digital and analog fiber systems.
A brief account of coherent optical fiber systems is also included to give an appreciation of this area of future development, Finally, Chapter [1 describes the many current and predicted application areas for optical fiber communications by drawing on examples from research and development work which has already been undertaken, This discussion is expanded into consideration of other likely future developments with a brief account of the current technology involved in integrated optics and optoelectronic inte gra ti on.
Worked examples are interspersed throughout the text to assist the learning process by illustrating the use of equations and by providing realistic values for the various parameters encountered, In addition, problems have been provided at the end of relevant chapters Chapters 2 to 10 inclusive to examine the reader's understanding of the text and to assist tutorial work.
A Teacher's Manual containing the solutions to these problems may be obtained from the publisher.
Extensive end-of-chapter references providea guide for further reading and indicate a source for those equations which have been quoted without derivation. A complete glossary of symbols, together with a list of common abbreviations employed in the text, is provided.
SI units are used throughout the text. What is the cause of material dispersion and waveguide Dispersion? What are fiber bending losses? What do you mean by attenuation of an optical fiber? What are its units? What are different causes of attenuation in an optical fiber?
A 15 km optical fiber link uses fiber with a loss of 1. The fiber is jointed every kilometer with connectors which given an attenuation of 0.
Estimate the bandwidth-length product for the fiber when a non return to zero digital code is used. Estimate the rms pulse broadening over a 40 km digital optical link without repeaters consisting of the fiber and using a return to zero code.
The material dispersion parameter for a glass fiber is 20 ps nm-I km-1 at a wavelength of 1. Estimate the pulse broadening due to material dispersion within the fiber when light is launched from an injection laser source with a peak wavelength of 1. A multimode step index fiber has a numerical aperture of 0. Estimate the bandwidth-length product for the fiber assuming only intermodal dispersion and a return to zero code when: A multimode, optimum near parabolic profile graded index fiber has a material dispersion parameter of 30 ps nm-I km-1 when used with a good LED source of rms spectral width 25 nm.
The fiber has numerical aperture. Estimate the total rms pulse broadening per kilometer within the fiber assuming waveguide dispersion to be negligible. Hence estimate the bandwidth-length product for the fiber.
Optical Fibre Communications JOHN.M.seniOR
The difference in the effective refractive indices nx - ny for the two orthogonally polarized modes in conventional single mode fibers are in the range 9.
Determine the corresponding range for the beat lengths of the fibers when they are operating at a transmission wavelength of 1. Hence obtain the range of the modal birefringent for the fibers.
The photo elastic coefficient and the refractive index for silica arc 0. Silica has an isothermal compressibility of 7 x m N-1 and an estimated fictive temperature of K.
Calalog Ing In Publication Data
Determine the theoretical attenuation in decibels per kilometer due to the fundamental Rayleigh scattering in silica at optical wavelengths of 0.
Boltzmann's constant is 1. Calculate the operating wavelength of the laser and the attenuation in decibel per kilometer of the fiber at this wavelength. What do you mean by internal quantum efficiency and external quantum efficiency of a Semiconductor injection diode? What do you mean by population inversion?
Mention threshold condition for Laser oscillations. Explain the terms: Explain the working of semiconductor injection laser. What are its advantages and disadvantages?
Briefly describe the characteristics of Semiconductor injection Laser. How single mode operation is achieved in of Semiconductor injection Laser. Write short notes on: Briefly outline the general requirements for a source in optical fiber communications. The longitudinal modes of a gallium arsenide injection laser emitting at a wavelength of 0. Determine the length of the optical cavity and the number of longitudinal modes emitted.
The refractive index of gallium arsenide is 3. When GaSb is used in the fabrication of an electroluminescent source, estimate the necessary hole concentration in the p type region in order that the radiative minority carrier lifetime is 1 ns.
At normal operating temperature the loss coefficient is 10 cm-1 and the current threshold is 50 mA. When the mirror reflectivity at each end of the optical cavity is 0.
It may be assumed that the current is confined to the optical cavity. Calculate the internal quantum efficiency of the laser. Outline the common LED structures for optical fiber communication discussing their relative merits and drawbacks. What is meant by the direct modulation of an optical source? Give reasons for the current use of direct intensity modulation of semiconductor optical sources and comment on possible alternatives.
Determine the transmission factor for the InP-air interface if the drive current is 37 rnA and the potential difference across the device is 1. The refractive index of InP may be taken as 3. Estimate the optical power emitted by the device in into air, and hence determine the external power efficiency if the potential difference across the device is 1 V.
It may be assumed that the transmission factor at the GaAs-air interface is 0. Comment on any approximations made. Briefly discuss the possible sources of noise in optical fiber receivers. Describe in detail what is meant by quantum noise.
Consider this phenomenon with regard to: Explain receiver structures.
Optical Fiber Communications
A silicon photodiode has a responsivity of 0. Determine the minimum incident optical power required. An analog optical fiber communication system requires an SNR of 40 dB at the detector with a post detection bandwidth of 30 MHz.
Calculate the minimum optical power required at the detector if it is operating at a wavelength of 0. State any assumptions made.
A germanium photodiode incorporated into an optical fiber receiver working at a wavelength of 1. When the incident optical power at this wavelength is lOW and the responsivity of the device is 0.
Draw and explain block diagram of optical communication system. What are the advantages of optical fiber communication? What is the structure of an optical fiber? Explain following terms: Critical angle d. Graded index fiber b. Numerical aperture e.
Multimode fiber c. Step index fiber f. Acceptance angle 5. What do you mean by normalized frequency V of the fiber?Have a great day! Fusion splicing is normally done with a fusion splicer that controls the alignment of the two fibers to keep losses as low as 0.
Thus the light from an optical transmitter will have definite spectral width. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with the more practical aspects of optical fiber communication.
Optical Sources Optical transmitter coverts electrical input signal into corresponding optical signal. Ambalika Smiti. The output in this case is a current that is very linear with the input light power. Reduced refractive index at the centre of core.